Who Are You And Why Should I Listen To What You Have To Say?

Sep 16, 2017 by

AmyGilliland-5Demands for transparency in science and accountability for potential bias in researchers are relevant to doulas because so much of what we do is research driven. People want to know who is generating knowledge and how their backgrounds inform their findings. Since I’m about to embark on some rather provocative blog posts I wanted to share information that I think is relevant for my readers to know.

I was twenty years old when I unexpectedly went to my first birth and ended up doing all the labor support. I knew very little so I left with lots of questions. My curiosity led me to have a midwife attended birth myself a few years later, and I became a childbirth educator and professional birth assistant at age twenty four. That was over thirty years ago and I’ve never stopped being a doula or involved in birth work. Throughout the years I’ve been a La Leche League Leader, an Informed Homebirth/Informed Birth and Parenting and ALACE Certified Childbirth Educator and Birth Assistant, a DONA approved Birth Doula Trainer, Advanced DONA Birth Doula, and an AASECT Certified Sexuality Educator. I served on the boards of DONA (’95-99), Wisconsin Association for Perinatal Care (’12-present), and have given general session presentations at international conferences including DONA, CAPPA, ProDoula, and Lamaze. My full CV, listing presentations and work published in peer reviewed journals, is here.

That’s what looks good on paper. But what about me personally? I became a doula when my adult identity was cementing. I’ve never not been a doula or surrounded by doulas. For my research studies, including my master’s thesis and doctoral dissertation, I interviewed over sixty doulas and forty parents about their experiences with labor support. My goal is to increase the legitimacy, understanding and professional respect for the doula professions. A secondary goal is to empower laboring people and careproviders to create a respectful, cooperative system of perinatal care that allows for differences in philosophy and practice.

For fourteen years I’ve taught university level courses in the psychology of human relationships, human sexuality, introduction to psychology, and public speaking. I have a graduate certificate in prenatal and perinatal psychology and believe the newborn is conscious human being capable of complete sensation and the creation of memory before birth. I believe in the empowerment of people in labor, no matter what their gender or sex, and the individualization of care towards that person. I believe the medical system is toxic for most nurses, midwives and physicians and that system change is possible when we are all willing to subvert the existing power structure. However I’m not an activist or an agitator. Those roles are necessary and valuable for social change, but it’s not my gift.

Instead, I’ve noticed that lasting change comes when people are open and you can make an individual connection. So I teach. I facilitate. I lead. My workshops are grounded in research – it is what we know and trust as a society – as well as teaching the skills of connection and communication. Those ‘soft’ processes are the ones that bring differences in neonatal and obstetrical outcomes at a birth. After all my years of research and reading, that is my theory. Doulas make a difference because they are able to meet a laboring person’s attachment needs.

Others have described me as a thought leader and visionary in the doula world. I spend a lot of my time thinking, pondering, considering, ruminating, and gestating my ideas. This blog is a culmination of much of that effort. Many of these essays have been worked on for four months or more before they are posted. For those of you who are still reading, I am constantly trying to answer the question, “What are the influences on this situation? Why are things the way they are?” My research interests have landed me a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Human Ecology’s Center for Child and Family Well-Being. This enables me to access the university’s resources to continue researching and publishing my studies on labor support and doula care.

People have criticized me for being too detached, not emotionally involved enough, or not having a strong enough opinion. As a trained scientist I really strive to be aware of my own biases and to include them when they are an influence on my conclusions. This detachment may come across as uncaring in my writing.  On a personal level, I’d been attending births for a decade before I called myself a “doula”. I didn’t really care for the word – I was a professional birth assistant – but it was the word the market chose for what I did. I rationalized that it took up less space on my business card. Birth trends have changed, what mothers want has changed, who is birthing has changed, men’s roles in society and parenting have changed, and so have public attitudes about childbirth. Having lived and adapted my practices to accommodate all these changes, I just don’t get as emotionally invested anymore. I’m not uncaring, I’m just more protective about what I allow to make me angry or upset. When I wrote the Birthrape blog for example, it wasn’t going to help anyone if I ranted. What doulas really wanted was solutions – a recipe of what to do and some understanding of why medical careproviders ignore the protests and cries of their patients during a painful procedure.

Anyone who knows me knows that I care deeply about doulas, about how people birth and are born on this planet, and creating lasting social change that honors our brains, psyches, and bodies. Otherwise I would not have dedicated my life to it.

 

Facts About Me That People Find Interesting:

  • “Giving Birth The Movie” – (2006, 2000) I executive produced this DVD documentary with director/producer Suzanne Arms   – available for viewing on Amazon.com for $2.99!
  • I have a research chapter called “Doulas As Facilitators of Transformation and Grief”, (2016), in the first academic book about doulas, Doulas and Intimate Labour: Boundaries, Bodies, and Birth, edited by Angela Castaneda and Julie Johnson Searcy.
  • I have a research chapter in Julie Brill’s book called “Attending the Births of Friends”, Round The Circle: Doulas Share Their Experiences, by Julie Brill (2015).
  • In 2002/2003 I lost 100 pounds and have kept 90 pounds off for fifteen years.
  • I married my fourth husband in 2013 and am the happiest I have ever been.
  • I birthed three children out of hospital with midwives, and am stepmother to a fourth.
  • I grew up in a family with only women and went to all girl’s school and camp.
  • I have no cousins, aunts, uncles, or siblings. My family of origin has all passed away.
  • I have done end of life care for several people who I have loved.
  • I am committed to being the best multicultural birth doula trainer I can be and actively work at uncovering my own internalized racism from living in a racist society. Towards this end, I have an accountability group and take workshops on a regular basis.
  • Like many women, I have survived sexual abuse, sexual assaults, marital rape, interpersonal violence, and stalking. I moved to Wisconsin to get away from the stalker. I believe we have to share this herstory otherwise victims/survivors feel isolated or ashamed. It was not our fault.
  • My areas of privilege are socio-economic, education, cisgendered, white, and the ability to pass in most other areas where I do not possess societal privileges.
  • Since I was born I’ve never lived without a cat.
  • I hiked for eight hours on an erupting volcano. Yes, it was dangerous!
  • I grew up on a rural California cattle ranch, a Napa historical home, and in the cities of San Jose and San Francisco. I can ride a horse, ski down a mountain, and swim in the ocean.
  • The Wisconsin State Journal published two articles about me and I’ve been featured in a regional women’s magazine (as a doula) and Florida and Wisconsin regional home magazines.
  • I’ve rehabilitated or extensively remodeled five homes and planned and pulled off six weddings. I love being inspired by the potential in homes and people to be their best.
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Hospital Agreements: An Opportunity For Engagement [Part II]

Jul 24, 2016 by

HospitalDoulaAgreementsAnOpportunity For Engagement (1) copyIf a doula agreement is being waved in front of you, congratulations! It means that your doula community has gotten too large to ignore and is having enough of an impact that the hospital wants to exert some control. Now the real work begins, not with clients, but with the institutions where our clients are choosing to birth. You have an opportunity to create a collaborative atmosphere even if their actions seem hostile at the moment. This is politics, system change, and social change happening in your neighborhood, and I hope to give you concrete suggestions to co-create a synergistic relationship – even if it seems impossible now.

Keep the focus on your long term goal: an open channel of communication between this hospital and the doula community. Your goal is not to get the hospital to eradicate the agreement but to build understanding and strong reliable communication channels between two groups of people. You are using the proffered agreement as an opportunity for greater connection, understanding and dialogue between the people most affected by it. It’s imperative that the doulas who are approaching this conflict negotiation realize that attacking the hospital’s solution, the agreement, is counterproductive.[1] Anytime you openly criticize something, you make that person defensive about it and more entrenched that they are right. Instead, you have to put the emphasis on the conflict and your mutual interest in resolving it. If you focus on the agreement and what’s ‘wrong’ with it, you will get into a power struggle and doulas will likely lose. If not this issue, how you handle this will set a precedent for communicating about any future conflicts. Sorry to increase the tension, but this is an influential time and needs to be recognized as such.

So what can doulas do?

  1. First, have a leadership committee of the people who have the best communication skills as well as doula experience. Prepare yourselves. Read simple books on negotiation and conflict resolution (see below), or see what community or internet resources are available for continuing education. Being prepared and having skills will give you more confidence – but don’t wait too long.
  2. Contact the people in charge and set up a meeting. Make it clear that your goal is to generate solutions to their problem, and not to deny that a problem exists. Explain your perspective is rooted in concern for the long term health of the hospital’s relationship with its future patients and future doulas, and an ongoing relationship with open communication can work to both of your benefits. Doulas are not going to disappear, and trying to exert power over the doula community without seeking to get to know them will not work in the hospital’s favor. Someone in that problem solving group knows that, but their voice may have been drowned out by others. Doulas, there are allies in that hospital, and you will need to find them. Hopefully, you will also cultivate new ones through your sincerity and focusing on the long term goals. This will be harder to do if the atmosphere is hostile or the agreement is written in a way that delegitimizes a doula’s contributions to maternal-infant health or seeks to restrict the doula’s access to a client. However it isn’t impossible. Remember, they don’t understand our values or our role and you can change this over time.
  1. Be gently persistent until you get a meeting. State that you don’t want to get rid of their agreement proposal, but seek to find additional ways for their needs to get met. Do they want someone to call and complain to? Often what people want the most, over and over again, is to feel that their concerns were heard and met with kindness and respect. If you push that aspect of the meeting – “we want to hear more about your concerns” – it will be more effective than “we have to do something about this agreement”.
  2. Use this handout Doula Information for Nurses Sheet (initially designed for a nurse and doula conflict resolution meeting in my city) or a similar one to explain why doulas do what they do and give background about the state of the profession. Make sure you are all on common ground about doula support and what doulas actually DO and don’t do. Issues may arise as you go through this sheet together.  Listen. Listen. Listen. Even if the people at that meeting are not listening to you, listen to them. Reflect back their concerns in your own language. “What I heard you say is…”
  1. Emphasize common interests. “What we both value is…[2] Do this repeatedly as needed throughout the conversation.
  2. Ask, “What other possible ways to address this problem did you come up with besides an agreement?” This is where you’ll find out whether they fully explored the initial problem or took into account the concerns of other stakeholders. It’s possible they may not have and you can initiate it at this meeting. Ideally, you’ll be able to follow up with a small group made up of multiple stakeholders (see list in Part I) who are interested in a more complete problem solving process. Resist the urge to rely on one or two people from either group to do the negotiating or attend meetings – if one person leaves their position you’re back where you started from – without an ally.
  3. If the atmosphere is hostile or untrustworthy, it is critical that you do not allow emotions to cloud your judgment. Your communication needs to be intentional, not reactive. Don’t take bait – slurs on a doula’s past actions, a doula’s motivations, etc. Let it go for now.  Frame it as “learning about the tactics of your negotiating partners”.  Recognize that establishing trust takes time and repeated interactions where people behave reliably and do what they say they are going to do. Promise what you can deliver, not what you can’t. Set reasonable deadlines and meet them. People learn the value of a doula by experiencing you doing what you do, not from reading or talking about it.
  1. Be prepared for the presenting problem to not be the true problem. In one hospital I consulted with people were angry that doula clients kept insisting on special treatment for their newborns. Administrators discovered that while there were protocols for one hour of uninterrupted skin to skin contact in place, that was not what nurses were actually doing. Unless the doula reminded the parents and both parties actively advocated for it, usually repeatedly during that first hour, parents were not getting the care that the protocols were written to encourage. Nurses didn’t like the criticism and resistance they experienced from doula attended clients, and it was labeled as a ‘doula problem.’ However, once different stakeholders were interviewed, they discovered a deeper issue. It turned out the nurse’s workloads were so high that they felt pressured to do newborn procedures even when that interfered with the one hour skin to skin mandate. So what was initially perceived as a doula conflict, was instead a conflict between policy and workloads, with parents and babies being the losers and doulas as the scapegoat. This can also work the other way, so be prepared to listen to criticism of doula behaviors. Remember, listening is the most important thing you can do at this stagethere may be years worth of resentments pouring out if you’ve never had a meeting before.
  2. Focus on the possibility of a positive outcome. You can create collaborative relationships that don’t compromise the doula’s autonomy, ability to represent and serve her clients, and satisfy the hospital staff’s needs for predictability. In doing research for these blog posts, I found examples of several birth communities who had already created collaborative long term processes. (Please add yours in the blog comments.)

Susan Martensen, a doula and trainer in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, states that her local doula group has worked hard to be recognized as part of “The Care Team” and not as a “visitor”. The instigating situation that brought doulas and nurses together was the SARS outbreak in 2003. Hospitals sought to limit access for anyone into the hospital. Doulas in the area formed a new group to develop a standard of practice and code of ethics based on ones from their different training organizations. All doulas in the area agreed to sign the document they had created. “Two hospitals in the area agreed to regular meetings to build bridges and establish doulas as part of the Care team (and not included in the usual visitor policy),” according to Ms. Martensen. “It took several in-services to introduce, or re-introduce, the role of the doula to the nursing staff, so that we all understood the collaborative model of care. The meeting was multi-disciplinary, so there were doctors, anesthetists, pediatricians, etc, there, but not everyone and not all at the same time.”

The next step was to establish nametags for the doulas that were created by the doula group and a book at the nurse’s station that listed photos, names and contact information for the doulas. “Over time we developed a complaint process as well as establishing a system for addressing any conflicts during a labor,” adds Ms. Martensen. “It is a collaborative model that has worked well for the most part, and it is not administered by the hospitals.” They continue to have regular meetings with key personnel and doulas to provide feedback and assess their collaboration with one another. Ms. Martensen feels that the emphasis on collaboration and being seen as a valued member of the care team is what has made all the difference.

Ana Paula Markel, of BiniBirth in Los Angeles, California, USA, initially worked with a small task force at Cedars Sinai Medical Center. A rising number of conflicts was leading to a tense atmosphere, and Ms. Markel was talking to a labor and delivery nurse about it. Out of that casual conversation, a small group of interested individuals got together and outlined several steps which they have been implementing in the last year. They created a Cedars-Doula Advisory Committee made up of labor and delivery nurses, midwives, the nurse manager, and six doulas from the community who each have a different level of experience. Ms. Markel feels that having new doulas involved is crucial, since they often present a different perspective. The CDAC meets monthly, and has its own email address where people can write with questions or complaints. It is used by both doulas and nurses. Based on this feedback, they created a teach-in day for doulas, which was also attended by much of the labor and delivery staff. They did several role plays of challenging scenarios and explored the point of view of both nurses and doulas and what each thought the other “should” be doing. It was very enlightening for everyone. After attending the teach-in day, doulas received a recognition badge to wear. In this way nurses were reassured about the doula’s perspective and background knowledge.

Both the Toronto and Los Angeles doula communities were able to turn potential conflicts into opportunities for collaboration and enrichment. So, take heart! It can be done – you can create a process that benefits many stakeholders long term.  It is up to us, as doulas, to do the work and it is a task to be embraced. To have the ear of hospital leaders, even if it is coming in the guise of an untenable agreement, is what decades of doulas have been waiting for: an opportunity to create positive change in the system.

 

Here is a pdf copy of this blog post: Gilliland Hospital Agreements Engagement

[1] Fisher and Ury, Getting To Yes, p. 41 (first ed.)

[2] Fisher and Shapiro, Beyond Reason, p. 53

Fisher, R., Shapiro, D., (2006) Beyond Reason: Using Emotions As You Negotiate. Penguin Books. 

Fisher, R., Ury, W., (1981 through 2011) Getting To Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Penguin Books. 

Other conflict resolution, negotiation, or mediation resources may be available through a community college, university extension, adult education, or state or provincial small business support organization.

 

 

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The Time To Ask About Past Abuse or Assault is Never

Apr 6, 2016 by

TheOne of the most upsetting questions I have read on a doula’s personal history form is some version of this: “Have you ever experienced sexual abuse or assault, either as a child or as an adult?” While I realize the doula is trying to be helpful, the attempt is misguided at best, and can actually create problems and stresses for the client that negatively affect the doula-client relationship. What the doula really wants to know is whether there are ways to help the client more effectively, even if what the client wants may seem odd or unusual. There are better ways to obtain that information that don’t create more problems.

Asking the question automatically puts your client in a bind. They have to choose whether to be honest with you before they are ready to do so, or whether to lie. The issue with most survivors of abuse or assault is that the perpetrator took away their power of choice. Their body was not their own, it was the property of the perpetrator. The victim’s only choice was to submit or possibly face worse harm if they resisted. Part of offering healing is for us to allow self-disclosure if it is desired, and when the client initiates it. When we ask the question, it is to meet our own needs even though it is in the guise of good intentions. If our client does not wish to discuss these acts or even for us to know, their only other option is to lie. This dilemma is distressing for our client, which is not the doula’s intention. So don’t ask.

The truth is, what you really want to know is how you can help them more through their birth or postpartum journey. There are ways to get at that information without knowing exactly why. In fact, knowing details about the story is not necessary to offering effective support. Here’s what you really want to know, and I suggest you say something like this on your last prenatal visit (after establishing rapport):

Sometimes people have had life experiences that left them traumatized and that they had to recover from. Sometimes that involves assault or abuse, or even being in a car accident. There may be things that other people do or say that lead you to being instantly scared or startled or remind you of that original traumatizing experience. I just want you to know that I can help you best when I can help myself and others to avoid those behaviors, and what to do if they happen.

You can also offer examples:

  • Sometimes a person is easily startled and doesn’t want to be touched from behind without being asked first and waiting for a response.
  • Another person didn’t want to be in the bathroom alone with the door closed. The door had to be open or someone needed to be with them.
  • Another didn’t want people talking about her as if she wasn’t there. She insisted that they use her name and not call her ‘dear’ or ‘honey’ or ‘mom’.
  • Another was concerned that breastfeeding would bring up negative associations with a past experience involving their breasts. This person needed assistance in being anchored in the present whenever the baby nursed in those first few weeks.
  • Others don’t care for particular words, such as being told to ‘relax’.  

This is the kind of information we really want to know as birth and postpartum doulas. How those needs came to be is not important. We don’t need to know the story in order to be effective.  

At this point your client may choose to tell you the story. But I think it’s important to repeat that you don’t need to know their story to help them. Disclosure should serve a purpose and you want to make sure they don’t feel uncomfortable later if they tell you now. It could be a good time to get a glass of water or use the restroom to make sure their choice to disclose is one they’ve taken a few moments to consider. It is also okay for the doula to not want to know the story! Doulaing is a relationship and you get to take care of yourself too. Perhaps hearing their abuse or assault story would be triggering or upsetting for you, so its okay to ask that they keep their disclosure general rather than including emotional details.

My second point is that childhood sexual abuse is estimated to affect one out of every four women[1] in the United States, and one out of six men[2]. Sexual assault and rape are also common experiences[3], directly affecting at least twenty percent of the population. So, we’re probably better off as doulas if we assume an assault or abuse history rather than seeing it as exceptional. That doesn’t mean that every person who has been assaulted or abused will be affected by it during labor or their postpartum. In fact, some people are relieved to find that it didn’t have a negative effect in that part of their life.

In my experience there are two behaviors that new doulas are most likely to see and that they can effectively address. The first is disassociation – for some reason, the person in labor or postpartum doesn’t seem to be present anymore. They are not in their body, their present moment consciousness is somewhere else. The person may seem distant and unfocused, or may even be looking out the window or down and to the left (recalling a memory). The empathetic neurons in the doula’s gut are giving the message that the client isn’t with you anymore in the room, they’ve drifted somewhere else.

The other worrisome situation is when the laboring or postpartum person’s behavior seems to be totally out of proportion to what precipitated it. In other words, the way they are acting seems to be more dramatic or over the top and is disconnected from what they are responding to. This overreacting may mean they were reminded of something awful that happened in the past. They are responding to that experience rather that what is currently going on.

In both instances, the most effective actions by the doula are the same. Bring them back to the present moment, to being in the room with you, gently and without exerting your power or voice over theirs. This is usually more effective when the doula is quietly and gently persistent, rather than using a loud voice or giving orders.

  • Use your client’s name, use today’s date – or better yet, ask them what day and year it is.
  • Have them look at you, have your client tell you what is happening today, and where they are.
  • Have them notice objects in the room, prompting them with positive ones (flowers, baby book, etc).
  • If invited, touch them in a preferred way (you’ll know them) in a safe place on their body (this will differ). If you aren’t sure, ask. “May I put my hand on your knee, arm, hand?”
  • Rather than ordering them to do something, invite them. Let the client choose – this is very important. “If you can, let yourself come back to TODAY fully.” “When you are ready, let yourself explore feeling safe here in the room with us, letting your body to birth/breastfeed/nurture your baby.”
  • When it seems that your client is mostly back in the present moment, ask something like, “How can I help you to feel more safe right now? Even if it seems silly, please say it. Your brain sometimes has wisdom that doesn’t make sense at first.”
  • Follow through as best you can, with the extra blanket or the pink flowers from the gift shop or finding the right song on the playlist.

These can seem to be scary situations for newer doulas, but we can use the same skills with our friends and family members who have experienced trauma and are triggered in our presence. Sometimes they aren’t even aware that it happened, and our feedback is what helps them to notice that they aren’t in the present moment anymore. To me, because of the commonality of experience of personal violation, these are life skills we all need to see one another through the journey. It’s not about complicated strategies. It’s about being a safe and trustworthy person and allowing the laboring or postpartum person to have their own experience in a supportive atmosphere.

Some doulas have extensive counseling skills, degrees, or training. They have additional strategies to use than what I’ve mentioned here. The book, When Survivors Give Birth by Phyllis Klaus and Penny Simkin, is an excellent resource. There are also facilitators offering two and three day comprehensive workshops for birth professionals wanting to focus on this issue in their practices.

[1] http://www.oneinfourusa.org/statistics.php

[2] https://1in6.org/the-1-in-6-statistic/

[3] http://centerforfamilyjustice.org/community-education/statistics/

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The Essential (Oil) Dilemma

Apr 30, 2015 by

EOflowerphotoRepeatedly, doulas discuss whether or not it’s in their scope of practice to recommend or use essential oils and aromatherapy.  While that is a part of the discussion, it really isn’t the central issue.  What we need to recognize is an underlying philosophical difference between doulas.  The core issue is whether it the doula’s role to DO more to moms or just to BE present with her as the labor unfolds.  In the DO camp, people say they want to have more tools in their birth bag.  When a few simple sniffs can help with nausea, mood, or even help a woman to urinate, that is a good thing.  There are so many other interventions happening with the labor, using oils can help to counter them and bring the labor back into balance – or at least make the laboring mother feel better.

The BE group tends to feel that mothers have enough people trying to alter the course of her labor.  These doulas feel their strength is in the support they bring and the use of comfort measures to alleviate discomfort, not to change what is happening in the labor or what mother is feeling.  Being “present with” and supporting the mother 100% means not seeing her or her labor as a problem that needs to be fixed.  Doulas are usually the only ones who are not trying to will things to be different than what they are.  In a postpartum context, these issues are still present.  Is it our support that makes a difference or is it the tools we bring to help with post birth discomforts?  There is also a baby to consider, whose system may react differently than expected to scents and oils.

The BE-la vs. DO-la* debate isn’t new, but it reflects one of the philosophical differences between doulas.  I don’t think either of these approaches is wrong, but each leads us in a different direction.  As a community we haven’t formally acknowledged these two approaches. The essential oils issue brings them to the forefront, and offers an effective way to frame this discussion. If you’re a DO-la, using essential oils and/or aromatherapy makes sense.

The second issue with essential oils and aromatherapy is more practical.  Is there a potential for harm when they are used?  The answer is clearly “yes”. People can get burned and have unexpected adverse reactions (headache, migraine, nausea, allergic reactions, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, etc).[1]  For example, the desired result of calming a mother by using lavender can have the unintended effect of lessening contraction strength and frequency.  However, often these reactions are not common enough to discourage them from being sold to unwary doulas, who see themselves as trying to help mothers.  If you haven’t had an adverse reaction yourself, it’s hard to imagine that someone else might.

Essential oils are drugs.  They are processed products that are used with the intention of altering what is already occurring.   They smell nice, have fun names, and are easily available.  You can buy them at parties!  But that does not mean they are benign.  Rather they are potent substances deserving of respect and care.  Many hospitals need to chart their use in labor.  For these reasons, using essential oils as an untrained doula should be avoided.  Some would say that is enough reason for doulas to always leave them alone.

One of the core tenets for almost any doula is that the mother should be free to make her own choices, and the doula’s role is to fully support her in those choices. Including essential oils and/or aromatherapy as part of one’s practice could certainly be one of those choices, if you know what you’re doing.  It just seems so simple to pair a scent with a relaxation exercise during pregnancy to condition the mother to relax when smelling the same scent in early or active labor.  However if you want to use this powerful tool, you need to take full responsibility for it.  To me that means going over all the risks of using essential oil therapy as well as the benefits, and having your client acknowledge that in writing.

The risks to the mother if the doula isn’t fully informed are great.  They are not “safe” and any web site that makes that claim is wrong.  According to one doula, you can be liable for prosecution if there is a negative consequence, depending on how your state’s legislation is written. She suggests that the way to protect yourself and your client is to pair with a certified aromatherapist and have them make the recommendations.  The doula follows through on what the mother wants to do based on the consultation.  The risks to our profession are even higher.  Doulas are in a tentative position in many communities, and a black mark against one doula causing harm to a mother can easily spread.  I don’t want to be alarmist, but our position is precarious in some communities.  I often think that newer doulas are not considering how their actions affect everyone else.  We live in a global world now. This means you have a responsibility to other doulas and our profession once you begin to use the title of “doula”.

These days there’s really no excuse for not getting educated by completing a high quality course and engaging in ongoing discussions with others who use oils dermally and as aromatherapy.  Birth Arts International offers a self paced course specifically for doulas. (If you know of others, please put them in the comments section.)  As with all things, if the course is being offered by someone who is also selling you a specific brand of products, sales may be their primary motivator.  You may not receive objective information or even the breadth of experience you’d like in an instructor about their use during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum.

Some certifying doula organizations prohibit the use of essential oils or aromatherapy, taking the stance that they are drugs. Others advocate that doulas interested in this therapy take formal education or certification so they can be used properly and follow an aromatherapy standard of practice.  Others have no opinion on the matter. [2] This confuses the average doula who just wants to help mothers.  The better we understand what the debate is really about – philosophically, educationally, and professionally, the better we can support each other to find our own right actions.

 

 

Note:  In the interest of full disclosure, I have used essential oils on several occasions, most notably on my dog when he was dying of untreatable cancer.  I would don gloves and a facial mask twice a day and apply the oils in several places on his body.  The veterinarian, oil consultant, and I are all convinced that their application made him more comfortable, stimulating his appetite, minimizing his discomfort, and lengthening his life.  Second, my body does not respond positively to essential oils. There are very few that do not irritate my skin or cause other unpleasant symptoms, including migraine headaches. However I have close friends and midwives who have been using them in their professional practices with people and animals for a long time.  All of them have taken educational courses to gain the knowledge to use them appropriately and safely. Because of these experiences, I have a healthy respect for the power of essential oils. 

 

*Thank you to Gena Kirby and Lesley Everest who introduced me to this phrase.

[1] http://www.agoraindex.org/Frag_Dem/eosafety.html

https://www.naha.org/explore-aromatherapy/safety/

[2] At my last count, there were 26 certifying organizations in the U.S. alone, so I’m not going into detail.  Feel free to put your group’s stance in the comments section.

 

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The Doulas Have Arrived! Nurses, What Does This Mean For You?

Feb 9, 2014 by

Dear Nurse,

When doulas move into a new area, nurses are often skeptical and hesitant rather than welcoming.  This is a normal reaction to change especially when you are uncertain about how it is going to affect you – and how you do your job.  Here is a list written by an experienced doula trainer that might be helpful for you:

  1. Professional doulas want to work with you to help a laboring mother’s needs get met.  She views you as an important ally who has some of the same objectives and priorities.
  2. The doula’s goal is to remind their client to tell you and her physician or midwife what is most important to her about her birth.  She may have listed her preferences on a one page birth plan or may only state them verbally.
  3. Professional doulas do not have any agenda for a “natural” birth.  Every woman benefits from doula support – even mothers planning an epidural or cesarean section.  She and her family can benefit from the added nurturing, reminders they can discuss options, and extra hands that a professional doula can provide.  A doula birth is a supported birth.
  4. Professional doulas are familiar with the research evidence and best practices for maternal and fetal health.  Doula clients tend to also be familiar with this information – which is why they hire a doula.  Because of this, patients with a doula may make more requests than an uninformed patient.  Some of these requests may be a part of hospital protocols even though the obstetrical unit’s culture does not usually promote them.  Some examples:
  • No routine amniotomy
  • Intermittent fetal monitoring
  • Freedom to choose second stage positions outside of bed
  • Hands and knees, kneeling and semi-sitting positions with an epidural
  • Delayed cord clamping
  • Baby’s naked body on mom’s naked body immediately after birth and not removing it for 90 minutes or more
  • Delaying routine newborn procedures (not health assessments) for 90 minutes or more
  • Newborn exam on mother’s body or her bed
  • Weighing and bathing of baby in the patient’s room
  1. When patients prefer a cooperative decision making relationship with their care provider, they usually hire a doula.  The doula will help to remind them to ask questions about their care.  This interaction style may be rare in some obstetrical settings.  Rather than having their physician autocratically making decisions, these patients expect to be consulted and give explicit consent for each intervention.  With these patients, the doula may ask if the mother and her partner have any questions about a proposed intervention.  The ensuing discussion about benefits, risks, and options may be seen as an interruption or a delay.  However, involvement with decision making has been shown to increase patient satisfaction, birth satisfaction, lower anxiety, lessen the incidence of postpartum depression and prevent post traumatic stress disorder due to a traumatic birth.  This has been repeatedly shown in the nursing literature to be more important than complications, length of labor, or location of birth to short and long term maternal well being.
  2. In order to facilitate involvement in decision making, a doula may tell the patient about an unannounced intervention the physician is about to do. This way the mother may give explicit consent or ask for clarification.  This may be seen as an interruption by the nurse or physician but this is what a doula accompanied patient expects her doula to do.
  3. Despite these interruptions to the usual flow of care, the professional birth doula is your ally.  She knows the patient and can help you to get to know her too.  She will observe almost every contraction and can keep you informed of any issues the mother has or adverse symptoms shy mothers may keep to themselves.  They help mothers to stay focused.
  4. With a 60-80% epidural rate in most hospitals, nurses do not see many unmedicated labors. Doulas have been trained in normal physiologic birth, as defined by the American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM).  Mothers without pain medication may become louder and listen to their bodies’ urges to move around as labor intensifies.  When mothers are coping well they are calm between contractions.   The doula will help the mother to continue her coping ritual – which may become louder and more intense as labor progresses.

Three Clinical Recommendations:

When you are introduced to the doula, ask her about her training and experience.   Professional doulas are usually excited to tell you about their organization and background.  If she has not taken a training, then she is the client’s friend who is doulaing her. She is not a professional, so none of the descriptions in this essay apply.  The “doula” friend may act in ways that a professional would not do, such as speaking for the mother, touching you or the physician inappropriately, arguing with you, giving medical advice or telling the mother what to do.  These are NOT in the scope of practice of a professional doula.   If she is doing these things and has been trained, she is considered a rogue doula, behaving outside the circle of professional practice and ruining our reputation.  We hope she goes away even more than you do.

New doulas may make beginner mistakes.  There are more new doulas than experienced ones.  This is a challenging profession and many promising new doulas find it is not a good lifestyle fit.  Please be patient with the beginning doula and help her to learn how to treat you.  She wants to do her best to get along with you while helping her client to have the best birth possible.  She may ask more questions about procedures and provider preferences until she becomes familiar with your facility.

Labor and birth are changing due to the doula’s influence.  But this is not necessarily a bad thing.  Nurses are learning alternative approaches in non-pharmacological pain management and positioning techniques to rotate malpositioned babies.  They are relearning the satisfaction of emotional connection to a patient that the doula helps to facilitate.  They are seeing normal physiologic birth happen in their facility (even though it may require suspension of usual interventions).  But most of all, because of nurses and doulas working together, mothers and babies are having emotionally healthy outcomes as well as physically healthy ones.

Here is a pdf copy of this post: The Doulas Have Arrived

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What It Means To Be A Professional Birth Doula

Nov 26, 2013 by

There is a line between doulas who are professionals – where this is the source of their livelihood and the mainstay of their lives next to family and self – and other women who doula occasionally.  Not all doulas are professionals nor is it a goal for all doulas.  There is a place for all kinds of doulas and we need everyone if we are to reclaim our understanding of birth as important in women’s lives.  We lost it in the last century and taking a doula training or doulaing friends and family is a way to reclaim that.

Being a professional does not diminish the spiritual value we find in our work or the fact that many of us find it to be a calling.  We would be diminished in some way if we could not be doulas.  We have the joy of being in a life situation that enables us to do work we are passionate about, change the world for another family, and create income at the same time.

In my writings, I frequently use the term “professional doula”.  It is on a lot of web sites – even in the names of international organizations.  But no one has really defined specifically how it applies to our profession.  So I analyzed data from my 60 doula interviews, sifted through what I was reading on social media, and read through several books on professionalism.  This is what I have come up with to describe the internal identity and behaviors exhibited by doulas who consider themselves professionals.  I’d also like to introduce the term “emerging professional”, to represent doulas who are growing to meet professional standards.  So what does it mean to be a professional doula today?

1.  To be a professional means that you have completed education and training to gain the necessary knowledge and skills recognized by others in your profession.  Much of doula education is self-study, reading books and completing assignments, combined with taking a workshop and using hands-on skills correctly.  Training may involve working with a mentor and on the job training without any supervision.  Improvement comes from appraising our experiences and evaluations from clients, nurses, midwives and doctors.

2.  To be a professional means you have acquired expert and specialized knowledge.  This goes beyond learning a double hip squeeze in a workshop.  It means making sense of people’s conflicting needs in the birth room; intuiting when to speak and when to keep silent; how to talk to a physician about the patient with a sexual abuse history; how to set up a lap squat with an epidural; and so forth.  Competence and confidence grow in interpersonal and labor support arenas.  Any additional service you offer to clients means that you have additional study, experience, and possibly mentorship or certification to use it appropriately.

3.  To be a professional means that you receive something in return for your services.  For many of us that is money or barter goods.  However there are doulas who receive stipends that prohibit receiving money for any services performed.  They may request a donation be made to an organization instead.  If they meet the other requirements for professionalism charging money should not be the sole criteria holding them back.

4.  To be a professional means that you market your services and seek out clients that are previously unknown to you.  You consider doulaing to be a business.

5.  To be a professional means that you hold yourself to the highest standards of conduct for your profession.  You seek to empower and not speak for your clients.  You give information but refrain from giving advice.  You make positioning and comfort measure recommendations that are in your client’s best interests.  Your emotional support is unwavering and given freely.  Your goal is to enhance communication and connection between her and her care providers.  You seek to meet your client’s best interests as she defines them.  Several doula organizations have written a code of ethics and/or scope of practice in accordance with their values.  They require any doula certifying with them to uphold them.  But signing a paper and acting in accordance with those standards are two different things.  Even the values represented by various organizations are different.  Holding yourself to the highest standards is shown by how you behave.

6.  To be a professional means that you put your client first.  When you make a commitment to be there, you’re there.  If you become ill or have a family emergency there is another professional who can seamlessly take over for you.  You keep your client’s information and history confidential.  Confidentiality means not posting anything specific or timely on any social media.  Your responsibility to their needs and not your own is a priority.

7.  To be a professional means that you cultivate positive relationships with other perinatal professionals whenever possible.  You respect their point of view even when it differs from yours.  You seek to increase your communication skills and to understand different cultural perspectives.  You keep your experiences with them confidential and private.  You learn from past mistakes.

8.  To be a professional means that you have a wide variety of birth experiences and feel confident in your ability to handle almost anything that comes along.  Other professional doulas respect you and make referrals.  Note that I did not include a number of births.  Because of life and career experiences, some doulas will arrive at this place sooner than others.

9. To be a professional means that you seek out and commit to doula certification that promotes maximum empowerment of the client, using non-clinical skills, values and promotes client-medical careprovider communication, and requires additional education before offering additional non-clinical skills.  Certification means that you are held to standards that people outside your profession can read and understand.  Not being certified means there are no set expectations for that doula’s behavior.  Some doula training organizations have very loose certification standards with no specifics behaviors listed, just general attitudes.  Certification with behavioral standards that can evaluate whether the doula acted according to those standards is important for furthering the professionalism of birth doula work outside our own individual spheres.  It means that a doula is accountable to someone outside of herself and her individual client.   (In other words, certification in the context of professionalism is not about you, but about how it affects other people’s perceptions of you AND our profession as a whole.)  Having said this, not all doulas have certification like this available to them.

10.  To be a professional means that you seek to improve your profession by serving in organizations, representing your profession at social events, and assisting novice doulas to improve their services.  You balance your own desires and needs with the actions that further the doula profession – such as certification.  You know that when you get better – increase your skills, knowledge and integrity – you make it better for all labor doulas.

11.  To be a professional means that you have personal integrity.  Integrity means that your values, what you say, and how you behave are congruent with one another.  Sullivan has written:

“Integrity is never a given, but always a quest that must be renewed and reshaped over time.  It demands considerable individual self-awareness and self-command…Integrity of vocation demands the balanced combination of individual autonomy with integration to its shared purposes.  Individual talents need to blend with the best common standards of performance, while the individual must exercise personal judgment as to the proper application of these communal standards in a responsible way.”  [p. 220] 

“Integrity can only be achieved under conditions of competing imperatives.  Unless you are torn between your lawyerly duties as a zealous advocate for your client and your communal responsibilities as an officer of the court, you cannot accomplish integrity.  Unless you are confronted with the tensions inherent in the practice of any profession, the conditions for integrity are not present:  “Integrity is not a given….” 

In a doula context, this means that when you are in the labor room trying to figure out what the right thing is to do and struggling with it, you are having a crisis of integrity.  “Do I say something to the medical careprovider (MCP) or do I keep my mouth shut?  Have the parents said anything on their own behalf?  Do I just let this happen and help them afterwards?”  What value takes precedent: empowerment of the client or allowing an intervention to occur that may affect the course of the labor?  How will each potential action change my relationship with the MCP?  Situations like these are true tests of integrity that require us to rank our values of what is most important.

Sullivan, William M. (2nd ed. 2005). Work and Integrity: The Crisis and Promise of Professionalism in America. Jossey Bass.

How does this fit with your definition of professionalism for doulas?  What parts do you agree with?  If you disagree, consider why – is it my wording or the spirit of what is written?  Let me know – let’s keep talking about this!

Here is a pdf copy of this post to print or for your doula discussion group.

 

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Their Doula Disappointment

Oct 26, 2013 by

Recently these two news stories came across my desktop.  “My Doula Disappointment” outlines one woman’s story with her birth and postpartum doulas. The second is a petition which is a response to North Florida Regional Medical Center’s recent move to create a registry of birth doulas who are “allowed” to attend women in labor at their hospital.  What do these stories have to do with the current discussion of certification?  Plenty.

In the first issue, the woman noted that the doula she hired had twenty years experience and was highly recommended but not certified.  The mother disregarded the doula’s lack of certification, remarking that since she came highly recommended, certification was not necessary.  Now that she is not satisfied with her experience, she realizes that there is no one to complain to nor to mediate her dispute (or even to listen to her feelings).  While I know nothing about the circumstances or doula’s perception of what happened, that isn’t relevant.  My point is that the mother bemoans the fact that there is no one with any authority who will listen to her concerns, so she is forced to air her concerns on the internet – for all to read.  If there was a certifying body, the story she shares might be different.

In the second instance, NFRMC is reportedly instituting a doula registry in order to clear doulas who will be allowed into the hospital in a doula role.  [This is unverified as the only mention I have found online is the petition.]  Undoubtedly, they have encountered unprofessional behavior and are doing what they can to provide a “reasonable” working environment for their staff and providers.  Part of the problem is that doctors and nurses deal with novice doulas, hobby doulas, friends of mothers calling themselves doulas, and rogue doulas*Very few of these people feel any allegiance to other doulas or the professional standards most of us hold dear.  They can’t tell them apart from the professional doulas – we’re all the same to them.  We use the same title and there is no visual distinction between us.  Every doula gets blamed when one person calling herself a doula acts in a way that medical professionals do not care for.

Even though we are not part of the medical culture, it behooves us to structure our profession in a way that garners their respect.  We can either control and patrol ourselves or hospitals will do it for us.  As someone who has consulted with hospitals regarding their conflicts with birth doulas, I am not surprised by NFRMC’s purported action.  It makes perfect sense to me when I consider the bigger picture of their possible doula experiences.

On the other hand I hear doulas rejecting certification because it interferes with their freedom to offer services to their client.  What is it you want to do for your client that is outside the doula’s scope of practice as defined by DONA, CAPPA, and similar standards?  This “I want to follow my own conscience” does NOT work for doctors, accountants, or even personal trainers.  No one is protected by an “anything goes” attitude.  According to DONA and CAPPA SOPs you are welcome to use aromatherapy, therapeutic touch, even massage, homeopathy, and herbal remedies IF you have additional education or certification.  Counseling that these alternatives are available is certainly within your SOP.  Giving your mom a recipe for an herbal tea to start labor is too IF you are a trained herbalist and her MCP of choice is consulted.  Herbs, homeopathy, and essential oils are drugs!  They have effects on the body; that is why we use them.  The same goes for acupressure.  To think that these effects are always benevolent is deluding yourself.  States and provinces even require massage therapists to be licensed.  But many alternative remedies have been classified as supplements which means they are available over the counter.  But OTC does not = benign.  Both of these SOPs state that if the mother is considering doing something to her body that may have a deleterious effect, even if it is a rare occurrence, that she discuss it with her care provider of choice first.  Some doulas interpret this as asking for permission; I see it as consulting.  The mother hired her MCP for their expertise on her physical health.  If she is considering taking a drug or having a treatment that may affect her health, it is important for her to get their opinion and for her medical record to be complete.  It is the mother’s choice to make; we only counsel her to do so.

We live in a society where few people take personal responsibility.  You may think your client will never blame you or a technique you recommended for a poor outcome.  Just ask the doula who has had 100 clients – she’ll set you straight.  According to my own research participants and the hundreds of  doulas I’ve known over the years, scapegoating occurs in both small and large ways.  The limits for the doula’s standards of practice and condition that the client consult her medical care provider PROTECT you and your client.  If you really want to prescribe rather than support (or in addition to it), get the education and credentials to do so.  No one is stopping you.

But remember that the doula’s magic is her ability to support unconditionally and be present with a woman when she is vulnerable, uncertain, and challenged on every level.  It is believing in her ability to find her own voice.  It is not being another voice telling her what to do.  That is what the research evidence supports.  If prescribing, diagnosing, and treating are important to you, then perhaps your path is not to be a doula.  There are many other roles where these desires can be accommodated – just don’t do them and call yourself a doula.  Be fair to the rest of us – the choices you make individually do not end with you – they affect all doulas.

 

*rogue doulas:  A doula who willfully behaves in a way that is dishonest, unethical or against established standards for doula behavior.

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